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Translation ways

汉英句子翻译技巧汇总讲解

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:合并(Combination)


Category: 本科三年级以上
Key words: combination, simple sentence, compound sentence, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of combination of simple and compound
sentences.
Compiler: 丁树德等

C-E
(A) in terms of simple sentences
 

(1) 天气寒冷,河水都结冰了。It was so cold that the river froze. (丁树德,"英汉汉英翻译教学综合指导",大学出版社,1996)
 

(2) 理论必须密切联系实际,这是我们应当牢记的一条原则。That theory must go hand in hand with practice is a principle we should always keep in mind. (丁树德,"英汉汉英翻译教学综合指导",大学出版社,1996)
 

(3) 他在战斗中表现突出,受到连长的表扬。He was commended by the company commander for his distinguished performance in the battle. (丁树德,"英汉汉英翻译教学综合指导",大学出版社,1996)
 

(4) 年满十八岁的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。All citizens who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and to stand for election. (丁树德,"英汉汉英翻译教学综合指导",大学出版社,1996)
 

(5) 当时,友谊商店只对外宾开放,不对中宾开放。At the time the friendship store was exclusively open to foreign visitors.(王大伟,"现代汉英翻译技巧",世界图书出版公司,1999) (本科四年级以上)
 

(B) in terms of compound sentences
 

(6) 她对自己所取得的成就充满了自豪,这也不是没有道理的。She is justifiably proud of her achievements. ("现代汉英翻译技巧" 王大伟 世界图书出版公司 1999)
 

(7) 这家小工厂经过技术改造,发展很快,使人感到惊讶不已。This small factory underwent a technological renovation, thus developing with surprising speed. (王大伟,"现代汉英翻译技巧",世界图书出版公司,1999) (本科四年级以上)
 

(8) 只要看一眼这封信,你就会明白你上当了。A glance at this letter will convince you that you have been taken in. (朱巧莲,"汉译英之合译法","上海科技翻译",2001, No. 1)
 

(9) 看门人惊呆了,喘着粗气,摇摇晃晃地走下楼梯。The janitor staggered down the stairway, stunned and gasping. (朱巧莲,"汉译英之合译法","上海科技翻译",2001, No. 1)
 

(10) 还是热,心里可镇定多了。凉风,即使是一点点,给了人们许多希望。(老舍"骆驼祥子")It was still hot but everyone felt much better, for the breeze, though slight, brought them hope.(冯庆华编著,"英汉互译实用翻译教程",上海外语教育出版社,2000) (本科四年级以上)
 

 

 

 

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:补偿(Compensation)
Category: 本科三年级以上
Key words: compensation, culture, context, background information, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of compensation from the perspectives of culture,
context and background information.
Compiler: 《新时代汉英大词典》等
 

C-E.
1. 九州 Jiuzhou -- a poetic name for China
-北京外国语大学英语系《汉英词典》组编,《汉英词典》,外语教学与研究出版社。

2. 八股文 Eighth-part essay prescribed for the imperial civil service examinations-- known for its rigidity of form and poverty of ideas
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

3. 狗咬吕洞宾,不识好人心 Like the dog that bit Lu Tungpin--you bite the hand that feeds you.
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

4. 猫哭老鼠--假慈悲 The cat weeping over the dead mouse--shed crocodile tears.
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

5. 苏轼: Su Shi (formerly translated as Su Shih, 1037-1101),alias Su Dongpo, writer and calligrapher of the Song Dynasty.
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

6. 秀才 Xiucai, one who passed the imperial examination at the county level in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

7. 牛郎织女 the Cowherd and the Girl Weaver-two figures in ancient Chinese fairy tale (Later it also refers to husband and wife who live far apart.)
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

8. 蓝田人 Lantian Man, ape-man of about 600,000 years ago whose fossil remains were found in Lantian, Shanxi Province in 1964
-吴景荣,程镇球主编,《新时代汉英大词典》,商务印书馆。

9. 开绿灯 turn on the green light (provide conveniences for certain affairs, so that they could proceed smoothly)
-张震久,袁宪军编,《汉英中国专有名称和术语简明词典》,北京大学出版社。

10. 梅雨季节 plum rain season (about 1-month rainy season usu. beginning in early summer when plum fruit becomes ripe in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) or moldy season, a rainy season when everything goes moldy easily in the said area. (陈刚)

 

 

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:分译(division)
Category: 本科三年级以上
Key words: division, sentence, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of division from the perspective of various kinds of
sentences.
 


C-E.
(1) 不久,她提着篮子回来了。Very soon she came back, holding a basket in her hand. (刘慎军、李洪民、杨斌、刘宝编著,"按实例学英语翻译",北京工业大学出版社, 2001)
 

(2) 他拉过一把椅子放在客人背后。He drew up a chair and placed it behind the visitor. (刘慎军、李洪民、杨斌、刘宝编著,"按实例学英语翻译",北京工业大学出版社, 2001)
 

(3) 周萍一个人从饭厅走上来,望望花园,冷清清的,没有一人。Zhou Ping appears from the dining room. He is alone. He peers out at the garden. It is silent and deserted.(宋天锡、袁江、袁冬娥编著,李鹏飞审校,"翻译新概念英汉互译实用教程",国际工业出版社)
 

(4) 他哼着曲子从山上走下来。 He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.(刘慎军、李洪民、杨斌、刘宝编著,"按实例学英语翻?quot;,北京工业大学出版社, 2001)
 

(5) 人民的觉悟是不容易的,要去掉人民头脑中的错误思想,需要我们做很多切切实实的工作。The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to rid their minds of wrong ideas. ("英汉翻译手册")
 

(6) 我们的目的一定要达到,我们的目的一定能够达到。Our goal must be attained. Our goal will be attained.(单其昌著,杨宪益校,"汉英翻译技巧",外语教学与研究出版社,1999)
 

(7) 我们的革命已经获得全世界广大人民的同情和欢呼,我们的朋友遍于全世界。Our revolution has won the sympathy and acclaim of the people of all countries. We have friends all over the world. (单其昌著,杨宪益校,"汉英翻译技巧",外语教学与研究出版社,1999)
 

(8) 我们恢复和采取这些贸易方式的原因很简单:我们出口商品就是为了我们国外客户消费方面的需要。The reason why we have restored and adopted these trade practices is very simple. Our export commodities are for the use and consumption of our foreign customers. (单其昌著,杨宪益校,"汉英翻译技巧",外语教学与研究出版社,1999)
 

(9) 这次大会充分发扬了民主,大家心情舒畅,生动活泼;真正开成了一个团结的大会,胜利的大会。The conference has given full expression to democracy; the atmosphere has been lively and the delegates have enjoyed ease of mind. Ours has indeed been a congress of unity, a congress of victory.(钟述孔著 《英汉翻译手册》 商务印书馆 1980)
 

(10) 这些国家的共产党和进步党派,正促使它们的政府和我们做生意,以致建立外交关系,这是善意的,这就是援助。 The Communist Parties and progressive groups in these countries are urging their governments to established trade and even diplomatic relations with us. This is goodwill, this is help.(钟述孔著 《英汉翻译手册》 商务印书馆 1980)

 

 

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:形合 (Hypotaxis)
Category: 本科三年级以上
Key words: hypotaxis, sentence structure, syntactic, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of hypotaxis from the perspective of syntactic subordination or
sentence structure.
Compiler: 杨莉藜、冯志杰等
 

C-E
1. 让壁立的岩石,静静流着的小河,风过处便窃窃私语的树林,都作为自己的亲密邻居。
All the company she had were the steep cliffs, the gently flowing stream, and the trees that whispered in the wind. (杨莉藜<英汉互译教程>河南大学出版社)
 

2. 汉朝人在宫殿和墓前的石室里,多喜欢绘画或雕刻古来的帝王、孔子的弟子、列士、列女、孝子之类的图。
People of the Han Dynasty liked to have paintings or caved relief of rulers of old, disciples of Confucius, eminent scholars and ladies and filial sons in the palaces or the stone chambers before their tombs. (杨莉藜<英汉互译教程>河南大学出版社)
 

3. 不必说碧绿的菜畦,光滑的石井栏,高大的皂荚树,紫红的桑椹……
I need not speak of the green vegetable plots, the slippery stone coping round the well, the tall honey locust tree, or the purple mulberries. (杨莉藜<英汉互译教程>河南大学出版社)
 

4. 尽着他的腿的力量走了一天,问了一天,没有消息。
As long as his legs would move he walked on, asking, but by the end of the day he still had no news. (杨莉藜<英汉互译教程>河南大学出版社)
 

5. 七股大水,从水库的桥孔跃出,仿佛七幅闪光黄锦,直铺下去,碰着嶙峋的乱石,激起一片雪白水珠,脱线一般,撒在洄漩的水面。
Seven torrents were rushing through the archways of the bridge like seven glittering rolls of cloth of gold cascading on to the jagged rocks below and scattering snow-white bubbles like a string of broken beads on the swirling water. (<中国现代散文卷>外语教学与研究出版社,中国文学出版社)
 

6. 月光如流水一般,静静地泻在这一片叶子和花上。薄薄的青雾浮起在荷塘里,叶子和花仿佛在牛乳中洗过一样;又像笼着轻纱的梦
Moonlight cascaded like water over the locus leaves and flowers, and a light blue mist floating up from the pool made them seem washed in milk or caught in a gauzy dream. 。(<中国现代散文卷>外语教学与研究出版社,中国文学出版社)
 

7. 另一方面,必须用上述材料进行广泛宣传,使人们认识到,自然保护区是保护自然及文化遗产的基本单位,它们是在人类进步里程中长期斗争中形成的,对经济建设有着重要的作用。
On the other hand, it is necessary to carry on the extensive publicity, enabling the public to know that the protected areas are the basic unit of the management of the natural and cultural heritages which are formed in the struggle process against the nature by human beings and will play an important role in the economic construction. (冯志杰<汉英科技翻译指要>中国对外翻译出版公司)
 

8. 为保护海洋环境,促进海洋经济发展,必须提高对海洋环境监测的认识,增加投入,加强"热点"海域的监测,减少海洋的损失,加强海洋生物监测,避免潜伏的海洋灾害发生。
In order to promote the development of sustainable marine economy and conserve marine environment, we should pay great attention to reinforcing awareness of marine environmental monitoring, increasing investment and strengthening the monitoring in "hot spots" as well as biological monitoring to avoid marine calamity. (冯志杰<汉英科技翻译指要>中国对外翻译出版公司)
 

9. 饭菜虽然简单,但别有一番风味,屋外一团漆黑,穿过松林的风发出如火车的轰鸣声,我们在摇曳不定的煤油灯下豪情与老人干杯。
When we enjoyed the simple but tasty food and drank cheerful toasts with the old man under the flickering oil-lamp, darkness reigned the outside world where the wind was thundering through the pinewood like a train. (<中国现代散文卷>外语教学与研究出版社,中国文学出版社)
 

10. 仍像往常一样,把晴美的阳光抹上满峡的树林,叫带露的树叶都亮得耀人的眼睛。
Just as on any other day, the morning sun spread its fine light over the wooded valley, till the dewy leaves and grass glistened with a dazzling brightness. (<中国现代散文卷>外语教学与研究出版社,中国文学出版社)

 

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:音译(transliteration)
Category: 本科三年级以上
Key words: transliteration, proper name, special noun, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of transliteration in translating proper names and some
other special nouns.
Compiler:《中国翻译》等
 


CE (注:这部分中,完全按照汉语拼音音译的词即为"标准汉音",而按广东话音译的词也可作为回译中EC部分的例子)
1. 胡同:hutong (" Beijing Weekend ", No.520)
 

2. 饺子:jiaozi (《音义兼译--外来语中译之首选》,《中国翻译》,2001/6)
 

3. 武术:wushu (同上)
 

4. 普通话:putonghua (同上)
 

5. 旗袍:qipao (同上)
 

6. 上海: Shanghai
(以上6例皆可作为"标准汉音"的例子。)
 

7. 豆腐:tofu (《音义兼译--外来语中译之首选》,《中国翻译》,2001/6 或p.25,《词语翻译丛谈》,中国对外翻译出版公司)/dou-fu (p.25,《词语翻译丛谈》,中国对外翻译出版公司)
 

8. 功夫: gongfu (《音义兼译--外来语中译之首选》,《中国翻译》,2001/6)
 

9. 乒乓:ping-pong (同上)
 

10.炒面:chow mien (同上)
(以上例8-10也可作为回译EC部分的例子)


 

Title: 汉英翻译技巧:习语(Translation of Idioms)
Category: 本科三、四年级
Key words: idiom, cases, C-E translation
Abstract: It discusses the technique of translating idioms in various cases.
Compiler: 张培基、吕瑞昌、郭著章等
 

C-E

直译
(1) 男男女女都七嘴八舌地说出他们的惦记和盼念。 With seven mouths and eight tongues, all were talking together. They tried to tell how they had missed him. (张培基 习语汉译英研究)

(2) 亡羊补牢 to mend the fold after a sheep is lost (同上)

直译加注
司马昭之心,已是路人皆知。 This Sima Zhao trick is obvious to every man in the street.
(3) (Sima zhao was a prime minister of Wei(220-265)who nursed a secret ambition to usurp the throne. The emperor once remarked: "Sima Zhao's intention is obvious to every man in the street." (吕瑞昌等 汉英翻译教程)

(4) 你说这话,意思是要领导上三请诸葛?
What you say implies that the leadership should ask you three times, like Zhuge Liang, doesn't it?
(Zhuge Liang, a statesman and strategist in the State of Shu during the period of wisdom and resourcefulness in Chinese folklore. )
(张培基 习语汉译英研究)
同义习语套用
 

(5) 晴天霹雳   a bolt from the blue (同上)
 

(6) 只有破釜沉舟地跟他们拼,还许有翻身的一天。
All you can do is to burn your boats and fight them in the hope that one day you'll come out on top. 。ㄍ希

意译
(7) 我要有个三长两短,你给玉山捎个话!
If anything should happen to me , let Yushan know! (吕瑞昌等 汉英翻译教程)
 

(8) 大智若愚 A truly wise person does not show off his (her) ability. ( 张培基 习语汉译英研究)


直译加意译
(9) 瞎子点灯白费蜡 as useless as a blind man lighting a candle (张培基 习语汉译英研究)

(10) 梅她一个单身人,无亲无故。
Mei was all by herself and far from home, without a single relative or friend to help her.
(吕瑞昌等 汉英翻译教程)
临时变体
 

(11) 换汤不换药 (张培基 习语汉译英研究)
old wine in new bottles ( 原有习语为 new wine in old bottles)
 

(12) 守株待兔 (同上)
to wait for gains without pains ( 原有习语为 No pains, no gains )

省略
(13) 这女子真有沉鱼落雁之容,闭月羞花之貌。 (张培基 习语汉译英研究)
The girl's beauty would put the flowers to shame.
 

(14) 冷淡的阳关照着他们的愁眉苦脸和长发白眼。 (吕瑞昌等 汉译英教程)
The cold, pale sunlight fell on their gloomy faces, long hair and lusterless eyes.

增添
(15) 螳螂捕蝉,黄雀在后 (张培基 习语汉译英研究)
The mantis stalks the cicada, unaware of the oriole lurking behind itself.
 

(16) 树倒猢狲散 (同上)
Once the tree falls, the monkeys on it will flee helter-skelter.

混喻的回避
(17) 让我们乘风破浪,奋勇前进。。ㄍ希
Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!
(如果直译成Let us march forward valiantly, braving winds and waves 之类的句子,其中就出现了march和 waves 的混喻问题。解决的办法是1,"乘风破浪"和"奋勇前进"在意义上本是相互重复,加以"乘风破浪"这个习语由于使用过多实际上以不存在什么形象性,英译时可略成Let us march forward valiantly! 2, 意译法处理习语"乘风破浪",成Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!)

粗俗语的回避
借用同义习语或意译等方法回避。
(18) 她不满意人家说她是三枪打不出一个闷屁的落后的人。(同上)
It annoyed her that people should say that she was backward and that no amount of coaxing would open her mouth to speak.
相对应的英语粗俗语来代替原文中的汉语粗俗语。
 

(19) 混蛋!再打一个电话去!叫他马上来见我。ㄍ希
"You blasted idiots! Go and ring him up again and tell him to come round at once!"

   

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